Judicial Nominations 2019 – Year in Review

2019 was one hell of a year for judicial confirmations.  Freed from the time-consuming schedule of a Supreme Court nomination, the Senate plowed through over 100 judicial confirmations, dramatically reshaping both the courts of appeals and district courts.  

Nominations and Confirmations

This year, the Senate confirmed 20 appellate judges and 80 district court judges (as well as two judges to the Court of International trade).  As such, President Trump has had 187 confirmations as of the third year of his presidency.  In comparison, President Obama saw 124 confirmations by the end of the third year of his presidency, President Bush saw 168, and President Clinton saw 175.

Failed Nominations

The expanded Republican majority in the Senate from the 2018 elections and the frequent absences of Democratic senators running for President have allowed Republicans to push through many nominees on narrow party-line votes.  As such, the Administration has been relatively successful at pushing through its nominees, even controversial ones.

Nonetheless, a handful of Trump nominees have been blocked from confirmation in 2019.  Namely, judicial nominees John O’Connor and Maureen Ohlhausen were not renominated at the beginning of the 116th Congress.  Furthermore, the nomination of Michael Bogren to the Western District of Michigan was withdrawn in the face of Republican opposition (similar opposition has stalled the nomination of Judge Halil Ozerden to the Fifth Circuit).  Additionally, Judge Thomas Marcelle, nominated for the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of New York, withdrew due to failure to get blue slips from Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand.

Demographics of Confirmed Nominees

Let’s take a look at demographics of the 102 confirmed Trump appointees this year.

Age

In the past Congress, the average age of Trump’s appointees ranged between 50-51, in line with previous presidents.  This Congress, the average age of the Trump appointees is slightly younger at 49 years of age, which is still not too far from the presidential average.

The oldest Trump appointee tapped for the federal bench this year is Judge John Milton Younge, a Democrat who was first nominated to the federal bench by President Obama but blocked by Republicans.  Younge was 64 when confirmed.  The youngest was Judge Allison Rushing, who was just 36 when she was confirmed to the Fourth Circuit.

Race

Trump’s judicial confirmations continue to be overwhelmingly white, although the ratio has improved significantly since the previous congress.  Twenty of the 100 judges confirmed this Congress were non-white: seven Asian; six Hispanic; and seven African American judges respectively.

Gender

Of the 100 nominees confirmed this year, 26 are female: 5 appellate appointees and 21 district court appointees.  These numbers (26% female) are slightly better than the previous congress, where the appointees were around 22% female.  However, they still are lower than the 42% female figure President Obama managed to hit.

LGBTQ Identity

This year, the Senate confirmed two nominees who identify as members of the LGBTQ community: Judge Mary Rowland to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois; and Patrick Bumatay to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

Looking Ahead

Largely due to rules changes muscled through by the enlarged Republican majority, President Trump has succeeded in dramatically reshaping the federal bench in 2019.  However, his success has reduced the number of nominees who would be expected to be confirmed next year.  When the Senate recessed, it left just five pending judicial nominees on the Senate floor.  Nonetheless, while all of Washington will spend much time absorbed in an impeachment fight next year, the senate will likely continue its processing of judicial nominees.

John Heil – Nominee to the Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma

The Federal Courthouse in Lawton, Oklahoma

John O’Connor, a Tulsa based civil litigator in his 60s, was presumably considered a safe nominee when he was put forward in 2018 by the Administration.  However, questions were quickly raised about the nomination, including by the American Bar Association, and the nomination was withdrawn.  Now, his law partner John Heil has been nominated to fill the same vacancy.

Background

John Frederick Heil III was born in Lima, Ohio, in 1968.  Heil received a B.A. from Oklahoma State University in 1990 and a J.D. from the University of Tulsa College of Law in 1994.[1]  After graduating, Heil joined Ronald D. Wood & Associates before moving to the Tulsa County District Attorney’s Office as a state prosecutor.

In 2000, Heil joined the Tulsa office of Hall Estill Hardwick Gable Golden & Nelson P.C. as a Shareholder.  It is a position he currently holds.

History of the Seat

Heil has been nominated for the only judgeship in the country that traverses three districts: the Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma.  Judge James Payne, who previously held this seat, moved to senior status on August 1, 2017.  On April 12, 2018, the Administration nominated John O’Connor, another partner at Hall Estill, to fill this vacancy.  However, O’Connor’s appointment took a setback when the ABA rated him unanimously unqualified, citing alleged ethical impropreities in his billing practices.[2]  In response, the White House withdrew O’Connor’s nomination.

Heil himself had been considered during the initial nomination process that produced O’Connor but was not selected.  In June 2019, Heil reinterviewed with Senators James Inhofe and James Lankford, and was recommended to the White House in August 2019.  Heil was ultimately nominated on December 2, 2019.  

Political Activity

Heil has made occasional political donations, giving $1500 to Republican congressional candidate Tim Harris, who was Heil’s former boss at the Tulsa County District Attorney’s Office.[3] 

Legal Experience

Other than a short stint as a state prosecutor, Heil has spent his entire career in civil litigation, focusing on business litigation, employment, and intellectual property.  In his career, Heil has tried approximately 35 cases to verdict.[4] 

In his time at the Tulsa District Attorney’s Office, Heil handled drug, traffic, and violent crime cases, including the prosecution of Jared Henderson, a teenager who was charged with causing a fatal car wreck.[5]  He also prosecuted Robert Clark for deliberately running over a woman and killing her after a barroom argument.[6]

In his time in private practice, Heil represented a plaintiff injured after wind barriers were removed in her building, securing $1.2 million in damages for his client.[7]  He also secured $9 million in damages for his client in a contract dispute involving environmental restoration.[8] 

Overall Assessment

When O’Connor was nominated to this seat last year, we predicted a relatively painless confirmation given his age and level of experience.  His subsequent withdrawal reinforces the unpredictable nature of the confirmation process.  Nevertheless, Heil should feel fairly comfortable that, barring an unusual development, he will be on the federal bench in Oklahoma next year.


[1] Sen. Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong., Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees: John Heil 1.

[2] Justin Wingerter, Federal Judge Nominee From Tulsa Has Bar Association Complaints, Was Sued By Client, The Oklahoman, Oct. 1, 2018, https://www.tulsaworld.com/news/federal-judge-nominee-from-tulsa-has-bar-association-complaints-was/article_2406fcb9-137e-5389-a1a8-f939129eebac.html.  

[4] See Heil, supra n. 1 at 14.

[5] See Teen-Ager Pleads Guilty to Causing Fatal Car Wreck, Daily Oklahoman, Nov. 3, 1998.

[6] See Jury Convicts Man Accused of Running Over Woman, A.P. State & Local Wire, May 21, 1999.

[7] Wilson v. University Mansion Ltd. Parntership, d/b/a University Club, et al., Case No. 17-CV-217 (N.D. Okla. 2017).

[8] OHM Remediation Srvs. Corp. v. Earth Tech, Inc., et al., Case No. 99-5029 (D.S.D. 2001).

Matthew Schelp – Nominee to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri

The area in white is covered by the Eastern District

St. Louis attorney Matthew Schelp has been tapped to fill the Cape Girardeau based seat of Judge Stephen Limbaugh, who is scheduled to move to senior status next year.

Background

A native Missourian, Schelp was born in 1970 in Kansas City.  He attended the University of Missouri College of Business and then received a J.D. from the University of Missouri School of Law.[1]  He then joined the U.S. Navy as a member of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) Corps.  After brief stints at the firms of Thompson Coburn LLP and Husch Blackwell LLP in St. Louis, Schelp joined the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Missouri in 2001 as a federal prosecutor.[2]

In 2010, Schelp left the U.S. Attorney’s Office to found the firm of Jensen, Bartlett, & Schelp LLP.[3]  In 2013, he left to become a Partner at Husch Blackwell, LLP, where he still practices.

History of the Seat

Schelp has been nominated for a future vacancy on the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.  This seat will open on August 1, 2020, when Judge Stephen Limbaugh moves to senior status.  In November 2018, Schelp reached out to Sen. Roy Blunt (R-Mo.) to express his interest in the vacancy.[4]  After interviewing with Blunt, Schelp was recommended to the White House in May 2019.  Schelp was officially nominated for the seat on December 2, 2019.

Legal Experience

Schelp began his legal career as a member of the JAG Corps in the Navy.  Then, after a short stint in private practice, Schelp spent nine years as a federal prosecutor.  In this position, Schelp primarily prosecuted economic crimes, including the prosecution of Donald Sanders, an inmate who doctored tax returns to defraud the federal government.[5]  Schelp also helped to prosecute Democratic State Rep. Henry Bowman for bribing a bank official.[6]  This latter prosecution attracted criticism from some who argued that the U.S. Attorney’s Office (under Schelp’s boss Catharine Hanaway) was targeting Democrats and sidestepping crimes committed by Republicans.[7]

Since 2010, Schelp has been in private practice, working primarily on white collar defense and compliance matters.  While there, Schelp represented former Missouri Gov. Eric Greitens in defending against a series of criminal probes which eventually led to his resignation as Governor.[8]  Schelp also represented St. Louis attorney Edward Griesedeck III, who was charged with misappropriating political donations.[9] 

Political Activity and Memberships

Schelp has a fairly active political history, including memberships in the Republican National Lawyers Association and the Federalist Society for Law & Public Policy.[10]  Schelp has also frequently donated to Missouri Republicans including Blunt, Hawley, and Congresswoman Ann Wagner.[11] 

Overall Assessment

Both of Trump’s nominations to the federal bench in Missouri have proven deeply controversial due to their strongly conservative backgrounds.  Schelp lacks the hot-button triggers that Clark and Pitlyk had, but will still attract Democratic opposition from his conservative record.  However, unless questions are raised regarding political prosecutions from his U.S. Attorney time, it is unlikely that Schelp would draw enough opposition to cost his confirmation.


[1] Sen. Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong., Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees: Matthew Schelp 1.

[2] See id. at 2.

[3] See id. 

[4] See id. at 25.

[5] Peter Shinkle, Prisoner Created Fake Tax Returns in $73,000 Scam, Indictment Says, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Aug. 29, 2004.

[6] States News Service, State Representative Pleads Guilty to Bribing a Bank Official, States News Service, Jan. 11, 2008.

[7] See, e.g., Howard Beale, Our Fair, Impartial, Non-Partisan U.S. Attorney’s Office Still Pulling For Blunt, Fired Up! Missouri, Jan. 21, 2008.

[8] See Kurt Erickson, One of Former Missouri Gov. Eric Greitens’ Attorneys Picked For Federal Judge Post, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Nov. 7, 2019.

[9] See Alan Scher Zagier, Ex-Mo. Gov. Wilson Seeks Probation for Donations, A.P. State & Local Wire, July 5, 2012.

[10] See Schelp, supra n. 1 at 5-6.

Michelle Pettit – Nominee to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California

The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California is currently short five judges.  The Trump Administration and California’s Democratic senators have settled on a package of five nominees to fill the vacancies.  One of the Republican picks is national security prosecutor Michelle Pettit.

Background

Pettit was born Michelle Elise Montgomery in Fredericksburg, VA in 1972.  Pettit attended the United States Naval Academy, getting a B.S. in 1994.[1]  She then spent five years in the Navy before getting her J.D. from Vanderbilt University Law School in 2001.[2]

After law school, Pettit joined the U.S. Navy Personnel Command as Assistant Legal Counsel.[3]  In 2007, she moved to the U.S. Navy Reserve as Senior Trial Counsel.[4]  In 2017, she became Chief Trial Judge in the Judiciary of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps.

Simultaneously, since 2007, Pettit has been an Assistant United States Attorney based in San Diego.  

History of the Seat

Pettit has been nominated to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California, to a seat vacated on October 31, 2018, by Judge Michael Anello’s move to senior status.  In October 2017, Pettit inquired about district court vacancies with the Office of Legal Policy at the Department of Justice and interviewed with the White House Counsel’s Office.[5]

In 2018, Pettit interviewed with selection committees set up by California’s Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Kamala Harri.[6]  Pettit was selected as a nominee on September 18, 2019 and was nominated on November 21, 2019.

Legal Experience

Over her legal career, Pettit has primarily served in legal roles in the U.S. Navy and the Naval Reserve, where, among other roles, she provided legal advice on confinement and detention, prosecuted Navy members for violations and crimes, and advised on terminations, ethics, and personnel matters.  Additionally, since 2007, she has worked on national security and cybercrimes issues as an Assistant U.S. Attorney.[7]  Throughout her career, Pettit has tried 25 cases to verdict, including 20 jury trials.[8] 

Among her more prominent cases, Pettit prosecuted five Mexican nationals for the killing of Border Patrol Agent Robert Rosas.[9]

In another matter, Pettit’s name emerged in connection with whether Navy Judge Advocate General James Crawford III had illegally interfered in Navy investigations and prosecutions.[10]  Specifically, Pettit was one of two lawyers emailed by Crawford’s subordinate Donald King, who asked about further prosecutions relating to the death of Navy Seal James Derek Lovelace.[11]  However, there are no allegations of wrongdoing connected with Pettit, who does not seem to have been involved in prosecutions relating to the death.

Judicial Experience

Since 2017, Pettit has been a Judge with the Navy-Marine Corps Trial Judiciary.  In that time, Pettit handled court-martial proceedings, specifically, one bench trial and three guilty pleas.[12]  Pettit has also served as an Appellate Judge with the Navy Reserve, where she reviewed Navy and Marine-Corps court-martial records.

Overall Assessment

In many ways, Pettit’s background is similar to that of fellow Southern District nominee Todd Robinson, who is also a federal prosecutor.  Such a background is fairly “safe” for federal judgeships, and, while she may face a few questions about the Lovelace case, Pettit is strongly favored to be confirmed to the federal bench.


[1] Sen. Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong., Michelle Pettit: Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees 1.

[2] See id.

[3] See id. at 2.

[4] See id. 

[5] Id. at 37-38.

[6] Id.

[7] Kristina Davis, Who Are the Five ATtorneys Trump Wants on San Diego’s Federal Bench?, San DIego Union-Tribune, Sept. 20, 2019.

[8] See Pettit, supra n. 1 at 25-26.

[9] Kristina Davis, Last of Border Agent’s Killers Sentenced, San Diego Union-Tribune, Mar. 20, 2014, https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-border-patrol-agent-rosas-gonzales-sentence-2014mar20-story.html.

[10] Carl Prine, Top Navy Lawyer Accused of Interfering in 2 Cases, San Diego Union Tribune, Aug. 3, 2017.

[11] Id.

[12] See Pettit, supra n. 1 at 16.

John Holcomb – Nominee to the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California

An intellectual property lawyer based in Orange County, John Holcomb is one of several California nominees recommended by Democratic Senators and approved by the Administration.

Background

John William Holcomb was born in Olean, NY in 1963.  Holcomb attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, getting an S.B. in civil engineering in 1984.[1]  He then spent five years in the U.S. Navy.  He then received a J.D. and M.B.A. from Harvard in 1993.  While in law school, Holcomb worked as a Research Assistant for a visiting professor named Elizabeth Warren (now a U.S. Senator and Democratic presidential contender).[2]

After law school, Holcomb clerked for U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Ronald Barliant before joining Irell & Manella LLP in Newport Beach as an Associate.[3]  In 1997, he moved to Knobbe, Martens, Olson & Bear LLP.  He became a Partner with the firm in 2002.

In 2019, Holcomb joined Greenberg Gross LLP in Costa Mesa as a Partner, where he currently serves.[4] 

History of the Seat

Holcomb has been nominated to the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California, to a seat vacated on January 28, 2016, by Judge Dean Pregerson’s move to senior status.  On December 16, 2015, President Obama nominated Paul Abrams, a U.S. Magistrate Judge on the Central District to fill this vacancy.  However, while Abrams received a hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee on May 18, 2016, he was blocked from a confirmation vote by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.

Holcomb had broached his interest in a judicial appointment in October 2017 with the White House.[5]  He interviewed with selection committees set up by California’s Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Kamala Harris in 2017 and 2018.[6]  In March 2019, Holcomb interviewed with the White House and was selected as a nominee in September 2019. Holcomb was nominated on November 21, 2019.

Legal Experience

Holcomb has spent virtually his entire career focusing on intellectual property law, and has tried five cases throughout his career, including two jury trials.[7]  Notably, Holcomb represented Jean Sprengel, a physician who sought copyright protections over her book, which provided advice to cancer patients.[8]  Holcomb represented Dr. Sprengel in a bench trial in front of Judge Michael Fitzgerald who held that Dr. Sprengel retained the sole right to create derivative works from the book.[9]

Political Activity

Holcomb’s political history is fairly mixed.  While Holcomb has been a member of the Federalist Society since 1992, his only political contribution of record is to Rep. Matt Cartwright, a Democrat from Pennsylvania.[10]

Overall Assessment

Holcomb’s history with intellectual property law and his relatively uncontroversial history should ensure a smooth confirmation and a relatively moderate presence on the Central District.


[1] Sen. Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong., John Holcomb: Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees 1.

[2] Id. at 2-3.

[3] See id. at 2.

[4] See id. 

[5] See id. at 31.

[6] Id.

[7] Id. at 20.

[8] Sprengel v. Mohr, 2013 WL 645532 (C.D. Cal. 2013).

[9] Jason Frankovitz, Apple Patent Trial Goes to Jury: Why Fight When You Can License, TechZulu, Nov. 20, 2013.

Judge Steve Kim – Nominee to the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California

On October 8, 2017, Judge Beverly Reid O’Connell, a federal judge in Los Angeles, unexpectedly and tragically passed away after collapsing in a middle of a speech to the California State Bar.  Two years after Judge O’Connell’s passing, President Trump has nominated an apolitical magistrate judge to fill that vacancy.

Background

Judge Steve Kim was born in Seoul, South Korea in 1972.  Kim got his B.A. from the University of Oklahoma in 1996, and a J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1999.[1]  After graduating, Kim clerked for Judge Sidney Thomas on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and for Judge Stephen Wilson on the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California before joining Munger Tolles Olson in Los Angeles as an Associate.[2]

In 2003, Kim joined the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Central District of California as a federal prosecutor.[3]  In 2007, he joined Stroz Freidberg LLC.  In 2015, he left to found SK Advisory Services.

In 2016, Kim was selected as a U.S. Magistrate Judge for the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California.[4] 

History of the Seat

Kim has been nominated to the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California, to a seat vacated on October 8, 2017 by the untimely death of Judge Beverly Reid O’Connell.

In November 2017, Kim applied and interviewed for a federal judgeship with selection committees set up by California’s Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Kamala Harris.[5]  In February 2019, Kim interviewed with the White House and was selected as a nominee in September 2019.  Kim was nominated on November 21, 2019.

Legal Experience

Before he joined the federal bench, Kim worked both as a prosecutor handling criminal matters in federal court, and in private practice handling white collar, cybersecurity, and forensic issues.  Over his career, Kim has litigated eight trials, and has argued five cases before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

As a federal prosecutor, Kim argued before the Ninth Circuit that forensic searches of computers crossing the U.S. border did not require reasonable suspicion, a position adopted by the appellate court.[6]  He also handled the trial and appeal involving a real estate agent convicted of possession of cocaine with intent to distribute.[7] 

Jurisprudence

Since 2016, Kim has served as a U.S. Magistrate Judge in Los Angeles.  In this role, Kim presides over settlement, preliminary hearings, bail, and any cases where the parties consent to his jurisdiction.  By his estimation, Kim has presided over five bench trials over his judicial career.[8] 

Notably, Kim presided over the arraignment of Lori Loughlin, who was arrested for her role in fraudulently obtaining college admissions.[9]  Kim allowed Loughlin to be released on a bail of $1 million, although he prohibited her from international travel beyond Vancouver, Canada, where she was filming.[10]  Kim also presided over the bench trial of Robert Rosebrock, who was charged with displaying U.S. flags on the fence of a Veteran’s Affairs facility without permission.[11]  Kim acquitted Rosebrock, finding that the state had failed to provide evidence that Rosebrock lacked permission to display the flags.[12]

Overall Assessment

Judge Steve Kim was recommended for appointment by California’s Democratic senators and has been approved by the White House.  Additionally, given his apolitical background and relatively noncontroversial record, Kim should be confirmed relatively comfortably and will create a relatively moderate record on the district court.


[1] Sen. Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong., Steve Kim: Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees 1.

[2] See id. at 2.

[3] See id. 

[4] See id. 

[5] Id. at 46-47.

[6] See United States v. Arnold, 533 F.3d 1003 (9th Cir. 2008).

[7] See United States v. Lloyd, No. 05-50300, 2006 WL 1737564 ((th Cir. June 22, 2006).

[8] See Kim, supra n. 1 at 9.

[9] Jonah Valdez, Actress Released on Bail of $1 M, Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, Mar. 14, 2019.

[10] See id.

[11] U.S. Army Veteran Acquitted of Illegally Displaying Flags at Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Facility, City News Service, Apr. 18, 2017.

[12] See id.

Todd Robinson – Nominee to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California

The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California is currently short five judges.  The Trump Administration and California’s Democratic senators have settled on a package of five nominees to fill the vacancies.  One of the Republican picks is longtime prosecutor and Federalist Society member Todd Robinson.

Background

Todd Wallace Robinson was born in Jacksonville, FL in 1967.  Robinson attended the University of California, Berkeley, getting his B.A. in 1989.[1]  He then received a J.D. magna cum laude from the Georgetown University Law Center in 1993.[2]

After law school, Robinson joined the U.S. Department of Justice as a trial attorney.[3]  In 1997, he moved to the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of California, where he has stayed since, barring a short stint with the Central Intelligence Agency.[4] 

History of the Seat

Robinson has been nominated to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California, to a seat vacated on September 30, 2016, by Judge Marilyn Huff’s move to senior status.  As the seat opened with around four months left in the Obama Administration, they did not put forward a nomination to fill the seat.

In January 2017, Robinson broached his interest in the vacancy with Congressman Darrell Issa (R-CA).[5]  He interviewed with Issa in January 2018 and then with selection committees set up by California’s Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Kamala Harris in late 2018.[6]  In March 2019, Robinson interviewed with the White House and then again with Feinstein’s office in August 2019 before his nomination on November 21, 2019.

Legal Experience

Robinson has spent virtually his entire career as a federal prosecutor, where he has handled a number of high profile immigration, terrorism, and narcotics cases.  Notably, Robinson led the racketeering prosecution against the Mexican Mafia prison gang, using organized crime laws to target gang activity.[7]  Under his leadership, the Office used the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), which was tailored to target organized crime, against gang and drug crime, indicting over 200 defendants, including members of the Arellano Felix drug cartel and the North Park gang.[8]

In another significant matter, Robinson led the prosecution of three Pakistani nationals who sought to purchase Stinger missiles in an effort to target U.S. aircraft in Afghanistan.[9]

Overall Assessment

Handling a heavy caseload of drugs, guns, immigration, and terrorism cases, Robinson  possesses the familiarity with the criminal half of his likely docket on the Southern District.  While some senators may question Robinson’s comparative lack of experience on the civil side, this should pose little threat to his nomination.  

If confirmed, Robinson’s background is likely to make him a conservative presence on the Southern District, particularly on criminal issues.  As such, he may follow in the mold of Chief Judge Larry Burns, another longtime federal prosecutor.


[1] Sen. Comm. on the Judiciary, 116th Cong., Todd Robinson: Questionnaire for Judicial Nominees 1.

[2] See id.

[3] See id. at 2.

[4] See id. 

[5] See id. at 53.

[6] Id.

[7] Onell R. Soto, 36 Indicted in Mexican Mafia Crackdown, Copley News Service, June 17, 2006.

[8] Kristina Davis, RICO LAW NOT JUST FOR MOBSTERS: Federal Tool Used in North Park Gangs Roundup Last Week, San Diego Union-Tribune, Jan. 13, 2004.

[9] United States v. Syed Shah, et al., 02CR2012-L (S.D. Cal.).